ISO/IEC 29100 Privacy Principles (2024)

  1. Consent and choice
  2. Purpose legitimacy and specification
  3. Collection limitation
  4. Data minimization
  5. Use, retention and disclosure limitation
  6. Accuracy and quality
  7. Openness, transparency and notice
  8. Individual participation and access
  9. Accountability
  10. Information security
  11. Privacy compliance

OECD Privacy Principles (1980)

OECD Privacy Principles is embedded in OECD Privacy Guideline.

1. Collection Limitation Principle

There should be limits to the collection of personal data and any such data should be obtained by lawful and fair means and, where appropriate, with the knowledge or consent of the data subject.

2. Data Quality Principle

Personal data should be relevant to the purposes for which they are to be used, and, to the extent necessary for those purposes, should be accurate, complete and kept up-to-date.

3. Purpose Specification Principle

The purposes for which personal data are collected should be specified not later than at the time of data collection and the subsequent use limited to the fulfilment of those purposes or such others as are not incompatible with those purposes and as are specified on each occasion of change of purpose.

4. Use Limitation Principle

Personal data should not be disclosed, made available or otherwise used for purposes other than those specified in accordance with Paragraph 9 except:

  • a) with the consent of the data subject; or
  • b) by the authority of law.

5. Security Safeguards Principle

Personal data should be protected by reasonable security safeguards against such risks as loss or unauthorised access, destruction, use, modification or disclosure of data.

6. Openness Principle

There should be a general policy of openness about developments, practices and policies with respect to personal data. Means should be readily available of establishing the existence and nature of personal data, and the main purposes of their use, as well as the identity and usual residence of the data controller.

7. Individual Participation Principle

An individual should have the right:

  1. to obtain from a data controller, or otherwise, confirmation of whether or not the data controller has data relating to him;
  2. to have communicated to him, data relating to him
    1. within a reasonable time;
    2. at a charge, if any, that is not excessive;
    3. in a reasonable manner; and
    4. in a form that is readily intelligible to him;
  3. to be given reasons if a request made under subparagraphs (a) and (b) is denied, and to be able to challenge such denial; and
  4. to challenge data relating to him and, if the challenge is successful to have the data erased, rectified, completed or amended.

8. Accountability Principle

A data controller should be accountable for complying with measures which give effect to the principles stated above.

The U.S. Fair Information Practice Principles (2008)

The Fair Information Practice Principles of DHS states the following:
  1. Transparency: DHS should be transparent and provide notice to the individual
    regarding its collection, use, dissemination, and maintenance of personally
    identifiable information (PII).
  2. Individual Participation: DHS should involve the individual in the process of using
    PII and, to the extent practicable, seek individual consent for the collection, use,
    dissemination, and maintenance of PII. DHS should also provide mechanisms for
    appropriate access, correction, and redress regarding DHS’s use of PII.
  3. Purpose Specification: DHS should specifically articulate the authority that permits
    the collection of PII and specifically articulate the purpose or purposes for which the
    PII is intended to be used.
  4. Data Minimization: DHS should only collect PII that is directly relevant and necessary to accomplish the specified purpose(s) and only retain PII for as long as is necessary to fulfill the specified purpose(s).
  5. Use Limitation: DHS should use PII solely for the purpose(s) specified in the notice.
    Sharing PII outside the Department should be for a purpose compatible with the
    purpose for which the PII was collected.
  6. Data Quality and Integrity: DHS should, to the extent practicable, ensure that PII is
    accurate, relevant, timely, and complete.
  7. Security: DHS should protect PII (in all media) through appropriate security
    safeguards against risks such as loss, unauthorized access or use, destruction,
    modification, or unintended or inappropriate disclosure.
  8. Accountability and Auditing: DHS should be accountable for complying with these
    principles, providing training to all employees and contractors who use PII, and
    auditing the actual use of PII to demonstrate compliance with these principles and all
    applicable privacy protection requirements.